Intra Uterine Device

IUDs are still very popular and the first choice of contraception, as they are very effective and carry negligible side effects.

Most of the doctor would use IUDs as a choice of contraception, because they know they are avoiding the serious side effects other common contraceptive pills may give.

Pills, being the most convenient, are infamous for giving you various serious side effects, which may be damaging to your health.

Types of IUDs

  • Hormonal
  • Non Hormonal

Non Hormonal

ParaGuard belongs to this variety of IUDs.

What is Paraguard?

It’s a T-shaped structure, tinier than your hand, which has a thin copper wire coiled around it in turns. It may be inserted into your uterine cavity by your health care provider and positioned in such a way that two arms of the T face and lie anchored to the two openings of the fallopian tube on each side.

How Does it Work?

Copper ions, released from the copper wire, are the main Hero. They work for contraception in more than one ways-

  • They are spermicidal, that is, adversely affect the sperms. Sperms are male gametes which are released by the male, via semen, into the female vagina during intercourse.
  • Thousands of sperms may enter the female vagina at a time. They are tad pole like structures, with a body and a tail.
  • Copper ions, hence released, are toxic to the sperms. They actually de attach the tail from their body, making them immotile.
  • Immotile sperms are unable to swim up the female reproductive tract.
  • Copper ions also interfere with fertilization of the egg. So, if by chance, a sperm reaches up the fallopian tube, trying to fertilize the egg, Cu changes the environmental milieu, inhibiting fertilization.
  • Furthermore, if an egg gets fertilized by luck, Cu ions act at a final stage, not letting it get implanted over the uterine wall. So, the fertilized egg gets washed away with female secretions.


Very effective. It starts working from the day you get it inserted into your uterine cavity.

When Can You Get Back Your Fertility?

Fertility is restored back from the next day you get the IUD taken out from your body.

Side Effects

No know side effects. The only working chemical is Cu ions. These are released in minute amounts, enough only to affect the local uterine surface.

They are not absorbed by the body to give any adverse reaction any where else.

Cu ions are not know to cause any damage to the uterus on a long term basis.

Complications of IUD

  • The commonest complication that may occur with these is infection. Infections of this area are grouped under Pelvic inflammatory Diseases.
  • In fact, women who are prone to getting infections in their reproductive tracts may avoid using IUDs.
  • Other complications include risk of getting out of position in the uterus and migrating some where else. In such cases, it may even try to perforate the uterine wall and enter the peritoneal cavity.


Most popularly used IUDs belong to this category. They include Mirena, Syla, Kyleena, Lileta. Once inserted, they give protection for 3 to 5 years, depending upon the Brand.

How Do They Work?

In contrast to the non hormonal ones, these IUDs are laiden with a female hormone, Levenorgestrel. This is a synthetic progetin. This hormone is slowly released into the uterine cavity on a daily basis.

What does the hormone do?

This hormone prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries. Furthermore, it thickens the cervical mucous plugs, not allowing the sperms to enter the female uterus.

The hormone also retards sperm motility, un abling it to move towards the egg.


Very effective. Less than 1 in 100 women who are using this IUD may get pregnant.

What is the Difference Between Mirena, Syla and others of The Same Type?

They are essentially the same. The only difference lies in the amount of hormones they release as a time.

Medical Advice (Q&As) on “IUD- Types And Understanding How They Work

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