Thyroid Gland and Its Disorders

What Is Thyroid Disease?

Thyroid disorder is abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland. Sometimes the body produces too much or too little thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, that is, the way the body uses energy. So it affects nearly every organ in the body.

If the body secretes too much thyroid hormone, it is called Hyperthyroidism. This result in speeding up of many of the body’s functions. On the other hand, if too little thyroid hormone is secreted it is called Hypothyroidism. This results is slowing down of many of the body’s functions.

About the Thyroid Gland

The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland weighing less than 1 ounce. It is located in the front of the neck below the voice box. It has two lobes, one on either side of the windpipe. It is an endocrine gland, that is, it produces, stores and releases hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones then travel through blood and affect the activity of the body’s cells.


The thyroid gland makes two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). They affect:

  • Metabolism
  • Brain development
  • Breathing
  • Heart and nervous system functions
  • Body temperature
  • Muscle strength
  • Skin dryness
  • Menstrual cycles
  • Weight and cholesterol levels

Thyroid hormone production is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. When thyroid hormone levels in the blood are low, the pituitary releases more TSH asking the thyroid to produce more of this hormone. When thyroid hormone levels are high, the pituitary responds by decreasing TSH production.

Medical Advice (Q&As) on “Thyroid Gland and Its Disorders

  1. Scarlett

    Hi, I have been worried for quite some time now. I have been trying to go to the doctor but I can’t afford it right now. I’m concerned about my health. I took a full blood test approximately 2 years ago and everything came out fine. At that time, I weighed 215 lb now I weigh 189. I have tried to loose weight for my own good, since my doctor had told me that although, I had no medical problems at the moment I could put my health at risk if I didn’t take action on my eating habits. I am a full time student and my job requires me to be seated mostly throughout my whole entire shift at work. This is one of the main reasons why I believe that I keep loosing and regaining weight over and over again. I do have problem though, I don’t eat much sometimes I only have a cup of coffee or whatever is on the go, that is if my schedule gives me time to think about eating at all.
    What really concerns me is that my skin has been getting too dry. At the beginning, it was irritated and itchy but that stopped. My hair is also dry and it has split ends and it falls off very easily. I have a hard time concentrating, I feel sleepy and tired throughout the most part of my day; regardless of how many hours I slept during the night. I used to be a very active young woman and now I’m not active. I can’t seem to remember things or concentrate on something so simply like listening to other or reading which was something I used to enjoy doing at anytime of the day. I can’t even watch a movie without loosing interest in it without any reason. I find myself putting my mind in blank, zero thoughts memories or whatever during the day. Why can all of this be occurring to me? I’m worried. This is simply not me and I miss my old self. Even my friends and family say the same thing, I’m simply not me anymore.
    One other thing that I want to add is that I have never had a normal menstruation cycle. I don’t worry much about that just because most of the women in my family go through the same thing, I don’t know if it’s OK to think like that but I do. Should I be worried about it as well?

    23 years old


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