How Does Typhoid Spread?
It spreads by consuming food or drinks contaminated by salmonella bacteria.
The route is called oro fecal, that is, the infected individual passes stools containing the bacteria. These bacteria may someway contaminate food or water, that is consumed by another healthy individual, who later on develops the disease.
Is Typhoid Contagious?
Yes, it is. Typhoid is highly contagious. However, the mode of spread of this disease is oro fecal. That is, one has to ingest contaminated food or water to get typhoid from an infected person.
In general, typhoid doesn’t spread by kissing, getting intimate or touching an infected person.
Exception are there, where hands of the infected person may be improperly washed after defecation.
Typhoid Spread Through Urine
This cannot be ruled out. Though rare, typhoid bacteria has been found in infected urine.
The bacteria resides in our large intestines. It makes patches in its lining and grows there. Therefore, it makes its way out of the body through feces. However, it may get into the urine too.
Spread via Blood?
As explained above, the bacteria makes ulcers in our large intestine and resides there. It grows and replicates there. Gradually, it pierces the intestinal walls from inside the lumen, working into it. Soon it finds its way into the blood stream.
We may then see this bacteria in blood samples of patients. Articles infected with contaminated blood may potentially transfer bacteria. However, clinically, such cases are rare.
Typhoid Spread Through Air?
Typhoid is not air borne, that is, doesn’t spread by sneezing, coughing. It is not contain in our secretions or saliva.
The spread is oro- fecal always. However, air may play a role. This is how it does.
Say if one defecates in open or has his commode close to his dining. If feces are not disposed away immediately, and food is served open, air is likely to be touching them both, contaminating the food with bacteria. So, it becomes a carrier for this infection.
Is Sanitation Important in Reference To Typhoid Spread?
Spread of typhoid is very closely linked with the hygiene of the place and population that is being talked about.
If there are good protocols for excreting out feces and washing hands after that, the disease spread is much low.
Infected feces needs to be disposed away safely. If defecated in open, the bacteria may get into the air stream and contaminate nearby food items.
The causative organism is a bacteria, named Salmonella Typhi.
Another similar bacteria called Salmonella Paratyphi, causes a less severe disease that is similar to typhoid and often presents like it.
Is Typhoid Sexually Transmitted?
No, it is not transmitted sexually, in general.
However, in cases where there are oro anal sex activities, the bacteria may get transmitted from one to another.
Vaccine is available. If you plan to travel to an area having the disease spread, take a dose of this vaccine at least two weeks prior to your travel.
A booster is required every two years, if you still remain at risk.
The vaccine is given as a single dose in to your muscle.
Side Effects of the Vaccine
They are usually mild. You may get fever, slight pain at the injection site. Some people have reported nauseating feelings or even a rash after receiving the vaccine.
If you get any dangerous sign after the vaccine, report to the hospital immediately.
Is There a Oral Vaccination Available For Typhoid?
Yes. There is a oral vaccine too. This one contains live weakened bacteria in it.
Four doses are needed. The vaccine is available in the form of capsule.
How To Take?
Take one capsule with luke warm water 1 hour before your afternoon meal. Repeat after a gap of a day and so on till you get total four doses. That is, day1, day3, day5 and then day 7 are vaccine days.
This vaccine is more effective than the injectable one. Boosters are required after every five years.